are planted along field edges to demarcate either external or internal
boundaries. The tree species chosen are compatible with adjacent crops
and provide multiple products such as building poles, timber, firewood,
fruits and play service roles such as being windbreakers. Trees commonly
used in this practice include Grevillea robusta, Markhamia lutea, Maesopsis
eminii, Casuarina spp, etc.
banks: Fodder trees/shrubs are planted in a block on their own
or mixed with fodder for cut-and-carry fodder production. The grass
species commonly used in the practice include Panicum maximum, Pennisetum
purpreum, Setaria splendida, etc, while the most commonly used trees/shrubs
include Calliandra calothyrsus, Sesbania sesban, Cajanus cajan, Leucaena
spp, Gliricidia sepium, etc.
tree planting: Farmers deliberately scatter trees on croplands
with little or no regard to tree spacing or planting pattern with trees
either planted or retained from natural growth. The tree species suitable
for this practice are; Albizia chinensis, Grevillea robusta, Ficus natalensis,
Maesopsis eminii, Markhamia lutea, etc.
involves the enhancement of natural fallow vegetation by planting shrubs
such as Tephrosia vogelii and Sesbania sesban in degraded farmland for
one or two seasons. Crop yields will be enhanced due to the improved
conditions of the soil resulting from decomposed leaf biomass incorporated
into soil and from tree roots.
Contour hedges consist of trees planted along contour bunds, with or
without grass strips to reduce the speed of water and soil movement.
Food crops, tree crops and animal production can be integrated. The
most commonly used species are Calliandra and Leuceana. The prunnings
can be used as fodder, green manure or staking material.
Crop Combination Technology:Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de wit
can be used as organic fertilizer and/or eaten by livestock. Interplanting
L. leucocephalla with sorghum or maize lowers damage from the leucaena
Tree species for timber plantation development:
These are: Pinus patula, P.oorcapa, P.caribaea, Cupressus lusitanica
and Araucaria spp. Pinus .oorcapa and P.caribaea are suitable in lowland
areas (<1,200 masl) while Pinus patula and Cupressus lusitanica perform
best in humid highland areas(>1,200). Araucaria spp.(A. Cunninghamii
and A.hunstenii) are suitable in cleared natural forest sites in the
lakeshore region and in Kibale forest. Other species which have shown
good performance include: Pinus kesiya, P.strobus, P.douglasiana, P.leiophylla,
Measopsis eminii, Terminalia superba, T.ivolensis, Grevillea robusta,
Melicia . excelsa and Agathis robusta.
and fuel wood: In humid high lands, Eucalyptus grandis gives
the best yields while in the drier areas, E. tereticornis, E. camaldulensis
and E .citriodora are suitable. Other species which have shown promising
results include, Markhamia lutea, Cordia oriodora, Terminalia species,
Senna, Simea and S.spectabilis.
and plantation establishment techniques for major plantation
pruning and management regimes for production of desired forest
crops have been produced.
control of conifer aphids such as cypress aphid Cinara cupressi
Buckton (Homoptera:Aphididae:Lachninae) that attackes and causes massive
damage to the cypress trees. To control the cypress aphid, Pauesia juniperorum
was imported and the parasitoid has established and monitoring for the
impact of the parasitoid is continuing with good results.
Pine woolly aphid control technology:
The Pine woolly aphid, P.boerneri (Homoptera:Adelgidae) mainly attacks
Pinus patula and P.oocarpa. Biological control agents Tetrapheps raoi
have established well and have suppressed the Pine woolly aphid population.
kiln technology: Solar power is harnessed to supplement raw
heat generated by burning saw dust and other combustible residues. This
new technique is cheap and more efficient than any of the previous wood
Protection Technology: The damage on wood from insects and fungi
can be minimized by treating the timber with preservatives such as low
cost solvent oils creosote and wood tar preservatives. Water borne preservatives
are prepared by dissolving the toxic chemicals such as Arsenate, Tanalith,
celcure, Rentekil and Dragnet FT in water.
Contact us at:
Forestry Resources Research Institute (FORRI)
P.O BOX 1752, KAMPALA, UGANDA